Sunday, 15 July 2018

Community Safety Cyber Bullying Social Aggression ''The Lasting Damage of Cyberbullying'' Ditta M. Oliker Ph.D ''...the Internet, email, cell phones, Facebook, and Twitter – all of which then alters the actual destructive psychological and social experiencing of being bullied to one of being stalked.’’


''the Internet, email, cell phones, Facebook, and Twitter – all of which then alters the actual destructive psychological and social experiencing of being bullied to one of being stalked.’’




The Lasting Damage of Cyberbullying

‘’The act of “cyberbullying” holds a strange paradox for me; it is an act that can be devoid of any direct social connection and yet, because of the technology and social media sites it uses, it can be hyper-social. For an adolescent, this can be particularly damaging since it can permeate and distort every aspect of a teenager’s social life, at a stage in life when peer relationships are so vitally important.’’

‘’It may be time to change how we refer to what is now called “cyberbullying” — aggression via the internet — to capture more effectively its lasting damage. Included in its meaning must be the power of the aggressive content (what the words say, or the image depicts) further enhanced by the power of the various media available to conveying the content – the Internet, email, cell phones, Facebook, and Twitter – all of which then alters the actual destructive psychological and social experiencing of being bullied to one of being stalked.’’



''...the effects of social aggression can be longer lasting and more damaging than physical aggression.  Since the "weapons" have a stealth nature to them, there is less possibility of anticipating the specifics of an attack and fewer actions to defend against an attack.''

‘’A recent development in social aggression is cyber bullying, acted out by both sexes.  



In this type of aggression, the perpetrator uses social networking tools - email, Facebook, Twitter - to inflict damage, particularly the spreading of socially harmful rumors of others.  Recent reports of several suicides by young adolescents who were targeted speak to the damaging power of this kind of aggression.’’

Ditta Oliker

The Lasting Damage of Cyberbullying

Posted on March 14, 2013 by crpmaster

The act of “cyberbullying” holds a strange paradox for me; it is an act that can be devoid of any direct social connection and yet, because of the technology and social media sites it uses, it can be hyper-social. For an adolescent, this can be particularly damaging since it can permeate and distort every aspect of a teenager’s social life, at a stage in life when peer relationships are so vitally important.
As I wrote in my last blog, aggression was, until fairly recently, the domain of the male and “bullying” was synonymous with a young male who was physically aggressive. The word “bully” is usually associated with male actions, not female ones.Social or relational aggression — ignoring, teasing, gossiping, excluding, secrets, backstabbing, and rumor spreading — now associated with the female, stayed under the radar of study, with the aggressive behavior often wrapped in a package seen as harmless, or just a “girl thing”. What was most damaging was turning the victim into a social “undesirable” and that the covert nature of the aggression left the victim with no forum to refute the accusations.
“Cyberbullying” takes the covert and hidden even further, allowing the perpetrator a greater opportunity to remain anonymous, leaving the victim even less of a chance to refute or avoid the damage of the accusations. The term has generally been defined as using the power of the Internet – emails, chat rooms, instant messaging and social networking sites, as well as cell phones — to send or post text or images meant to hurt, embarrass and humiliate another person.It can include threats, harassment, stalking, impersonation, trickery and exclusion. Both perpetrators and victims can be male or female and are usually older adolescents. In an interesting twist, when adults perpetrate similar aggressive behavior using the Internet, it is generally called cyberstalking.
When bullying was limited to physical or social aggression between perpetrator and victim, there usually was some direct contact between them, although it was limited to shared meeting places, like school or clubs. A safe haven would be any place that would offer an environment free of one’s peers, i.e. home. The special aspect of “cyberbullying” that is particularly damaging for a young person is the void of a safe haven away from it; for as long as a young person has a cell phone and Internet access, the borderless nature of cyber communications permeates all spaces he or she exists within, with the negative messages continuing to bombard the psyche.
All these aspects combine to create a situation for the young person that is physically, emotionally and socially damaging. If the victim attempts to fight back, the perpetrator increases the “I’m going to get you” attacks, forcing a state of resignation. The bullying also has a reputational effect so that the stigmatization endures even after the actual bullying has stopped. The distortions and lies that get bonded to one’s reputation become internalized, leading to feelings of hopelessness and despair. It is these feelings that can lead a young victim to decide that life is not worth living.
It may be time to change how we refer to what is now called “cyberbullying” — aggression via the internet — to capture more effectively its lasting damage. Included in its meaning must be the power of the aggressive content (what the words say, or the image depicts) further enhanced by the power of the various media available to conveying the content – the Internet, email, cell phones, Facebook, and Twitter – all of which then alters the actual destructive psychological and social experiencing of being bullied to one of being stalked.
The post was written by Ditta Oliker, author of the book THE LIGHT SIDE OF THE MOON
The post was written by Ditta Oliker, author of the book, The Light Side of the Moon – Reclaiming Your Lost Potential.



Wednesday, 11 July 2018

Community Safety Female Aggression Bullying Covert Bullying 'Bullying in the Female World' Psychology Today Ditta M. Oliker Ph.D Sept. 3rd 2011 Cyber Bullying Stalking Surveillance Vigilantism Hyper Vigilantism Social Aggression Social Knowledge Rumour Spread
















"Until fairly recently, there were no sounds associated with female aggression -- as if it didn't exist.



It's only in the last decade or so that aggression by the female -- in the form of social or relational aggression -- has been recognized.




 The words now associated with female aggressive behavior include: 


excluding, ignoring, teasing, gossiping, secrets, backstabbing, rumor spreading and hostile body language (i.e., eye-rolling and smirking).  




Most damaging is turning the victim into a social "undesirable". 






The behavior and associated anger is hidden, often wrapped in a package seen as somewhat harmless or just a "girl thing".  



The covert nature of the aggression leaves the victim with no forum to refute the accusations 





and, in fact, attempts to defend oneself leads to an escalation of the aggression."

''...the effects of social aggression can be longer lasting and more damaging than physical aggression.  Since the "weapons" have a stealth nature to them, there is less possibility of anticipating the specifics of an attack and fewer actions to defend against an attack.''

A recent development in social aggression is cyber bullying, acted out by both sexes.  

In this type of aggression, the perpetrator uses social networking tools - email, Facebook, Twitter - to inflict damage, particularly the spreading of socially harmful rumors of others.  Recent reports of several suicides by young adolescents who were targeted speak to the damaging power of this kind of aggression.

https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-long-reach-childhood/201109/bullying-in-the-female-world







With the growing data indicating that, for both boys and girls, 

covert forms of bullying are likely to ‘cause the greatest amount of suffering, 

while they have a greater chance of going unnoticed by teachers’ [122], 



it is clear that the old saying 

‘sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will never harm me’ 

is not only inaccurate, but is also dangerous 

in that it has marginalised the importance of covert bullying 

in the context of school bullying policy and teacher awareness. 



Edith Cowan University 2009









"Kick him where it hurts" - "Punch him harder" - "Pin him down till he yells uncle".  These are some of the sounds associated with male aggression.  In fact, the word aggression was only applied to the males of our species, expressed in physical action and captured in words like hitting, pushing, punching, beating and ganging-up.  Included in any description was angerthat seemed to be the force behind the aggressive act. 

Until fairly recently, there were no sounds associated with female aggression -- as if it didn't exist.







It's only in the last decade or so that aggression by the female -- in the form of social or relational aggression -- has been recognized.

What made me think of this was watching the film The Help based on the novel by Kathryn Stockett, now a popular new movie.  It is the story of life in Mississippi in the early 1960's and how a group of affluent White women relate to the Black maids who care for them and their children and how, in turn, the maids feel about how they are being treated.  It dramatically captures the distance between the two groups and the underlying racial biases of that time.
What struck me as I was watching the film is how it also dramatically and effectively captures the emotional and psychological violence of social aggression, including the sting and cruelty of the verbal "weapons" women use. The words now associated with female aggressive behavior include: excluding, ignoring, teasing, gossiping, secrets, backstabbing, rumor spreading and hostile body language (i.e., eye-rolling and smirking).  Most damaging is turning the victim into a social "undesirable".  The behavior and associated anger is hidden, often wrapped in a package seen as somewhat harmless or just a "girl thing".  The covert nature of the aggression leaves the victim with no forum to refute the accusations and, in fact, attempts to defend oneself leads to an escalation of the aggression.  The film captures a number of these "weapons" as well as a pattern found in the interactions of males; the justification for the use of the same kind of aggression -- physical or social -- by the "good guy" in response to the original aggression by the "bad guy".
Comparison between male and female aggression shows strong and obvious similarities.  Motivation for both groups usually includes: a desire for power, for control, for achieving greater social status and popularity, jealousyfear and derailing competition.  Aggressive behavior for both male and female children can be found as early as preschool age, is most prevalent in adolescence and can, as the movie so clearly illustrates, continue well into adulthood.  Both sexes form social structures that lead different members to assume specific roles and characteristics.  For example, in a female group (as seen in the movie) the one with the power is like the "Queen Bee" with a contingent of followers.  Her friends do what she wants, she is charming when she wants to be, she's manipulatively affectionate, she takes no responsibility for hurting another's feelings, and defines right and wrong by the loyalty or disloyalty shown to her. She is usually the one who decides who should be the victim.  The film also captures the dilemma of those who feel helpless to help the victim because of their need to not stir the anger of the Queen Bee and become alienated from the group.
What the film doesn't show is that the effects of social aggression can be longer lasting and more damaging than physical aggression.  Since the "weapons" have a stealth nature to them, there is less possibility of anticipating the specifics of an attack and fewer actions to defend against an attack.  This negative effect is particularly damaging during adolescence when the importance of acceptance in a peer group is maximized.  Adding to the pain inflicted on the victim is the lack of support by teachers and other adults who view the bully -- often a popular and charismatic young woman -- as innocent of such negative behavior.  Thus the strong positive reputation of the bully makes it difficult for a victim to get validation of the bullying and causes a victim to suffer the additional pain of not being believed and not getting any support.
Relational aggression negatively impacts "mirroring" - a peer group's reflected reaction to an individual.  Caught in the web of punishing aggression by peers, a young person's internal sense of self becomes diminished and felt as being "a loser" - "a reject" and "not as good".  Self-esteem is low and feelings of insecurity may persist throughout life.  What is also affected is the ability to trust as an adult and to be free to be open to close relationships. 
A recent development in social aggression is cyber bullying, acted out by both sexes.  In this type of aggression, the perpetrator uses social networking tools - email, Facebook, Twitter - to inflict damage, particularly the spreading of socially harmful rumors of others.  Recent reports of several suicides by young adolescents who were targeted speak to the damaging power of this kind of aggression. I'll write more extensively about the increasing prevalence and deadly effects of cyber bullying in my next blog.
I was also aware, watching this film, of how new technologies have changed our world.  In the 1960's the nature and power of relational aggression was more muted because these new stealth weapons did not yet exist.  The Help ends on a positive note, in some ways mirroring the positive changes in race relationships since the 1960's and the civil rights movement.  It may be time, with the power of the internet being used as a powerful weapon of covert aggression, to start a movement to change the nature of human relationships as they relate to both physical and social aggression.
This blog will continue to expand on The Long Reach of Childhood: How Early Experiences Shape You Forever including offering more information on relational aggression, a greater understanding of why someone becomes a bully and strategies that can play a part in lessening its power.  Hope you'll continue to join me on this journey.  And hope your interactions are free of both social and physical aggression.


https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-long-reach-childhood/201109/bullying-in-the-female-world

Friday, 6 July 2018

Community Safety Fear of Crime Ch. 4 "feelings of safety when walking alone after dark" 'A Safe and Secure Environment for Older Australians' Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 51 2003 Perceptions of Community Safety Vigilantism Hyper-Vigilantism the Rise of Covert Bullying Cyber Bullying Social Exclusion #panic #vigilantism #cyberbullying #fearofcrime #rapeculture #rapeschedule





"#fearofcrime is different than the actual risk of becoming a victim of crime" 


 The “safety on the streets after dark” question is a very common one in crime surveys, and indeed is sometimes the only one asked. The much higher levels of anxiety among older people in response to this question may well explain why the notion of excessive fear among older people has taken such hold.

Australian Institute of Criminology

“A point of some importance is that “high-fear” groups are not especially characterised by age. Rather differences, hold within age groups. Thus, for instance, while it is well established that women are more fearful of crime than men (or at least admit to it more), younger women are more fearful than younger men, as well as older women being more fearful than older men.”

“Apart from the gender difference, other main findings are:

“people who live in high-crime areas are more likely than those who live in areas with lower levels of crime to be fearful”

“local disorder (such as noisy neighbours, poor street-lighting, and teenagers hanging around) is predictive of virtually all measures of fear”

“personal experience of being victimised, and greater contact with other victims, heightens fear”

“Secondly, the evidence from the UK suggests that while fear levels for many crimes are not disproportionately higher among older people, they are nonetheless more likely to feel their quality of life has been reduced through crime and the fear it provokes”

“In contrast, there are two fear-of-crime issues that paint a more worrying picture. First, in answer to a question about feelings of safety when walking alone after dark, older people are markedly more concerned. They are not more concerned, however, about their safety at home alone at night (see Figure 12).

 The “safety on the streets after dark” question is a very common one in crime surveys, and indeed is sometimes the only one asked. The much higher levels of anxiety among older people in response to this question may well explain why the notion of excessive fear among older people has taken such hold.

The reason why older people are more fearful about their safety on the streets alone at night is not entirely clear. Note that the question does not mention crime, and it could be that the prospect of being out alone on dark public streets may evoke anxiety about a greater range of mishaps (for example, falling over), especially as the emotional, physical and financial consequences could be worse for older people (James & Graycar 2000).

 The question is also hypothetical for those who rarely go out alone after dark, which will be the case for many older people. It might also be that “street-crime” affecting older people is particularly overdramatised in the media—and many older people may form their perception of crime through this.

Secondly, the evidence from the UK suggests that while fear levels for many crimes are not disproportionately higher among older people, they are nonetheless more likely to feel their quality of life has been reduced through crime and the fear it provokes”

“A point of some importance is that “high-fear” groups are not especially characterised by age. Rather differences, hold within age groups. Thus, for instance, while it is well established that women are more fearful of crime than men (or at least admit to it more), younger women are more fearful than younger men, as well as older women being more fearful than older men.”

“Apart from the gender difference, other main findings are:

“people who live in high-crime areas are more likely than those who live in areas with lower levels of crime to be fearful”

“local disorder (such as noisy neighbours, poor street-lighting, and teenagers hanging around) is predictive of virtually all measures of fear”

“personal experience of being victimised, and greater contact with other victims, heightens fear”




Fear of Crime Ch. 4

A Safe and Secure Environment for Older Australians

Marianne James, Adam Graycar and Pat Mayhew

Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 51 2003





Fear breeds rumor. The more collective anxiety a group has, the more inclined it will be to start up the rumor mill.”



The 8½ Laws of Rumor Spread 
Psychology Today Sept. 3rd 2010




With the growing data indicating that, for both boys and girls, 

covert forms of bullying are likely to ‘cause the greatest amount of suffering, 

while they have a greater chance of going unnoticed by teachers’ [122], 

it is clear that the old saying 

‘sticks and stones may break my bones, but names will never harm me’ 

is not only inaccurate, but is also dangerous 

in that it has marginalised the importance of covert bullying 

in the context of school bullying policy and teacher awareness. 

Edith Cowan University 2009





https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-1_Tq5chbMw8/VUXCxKA-fVI/AAAAAAAABL0/wcqEPP5qxGA/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B001.jpg



https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-n_Hxefeybrc/VUXDMEAc7_I/AAAAAAAABL8/OjHB7l-sY_s/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B002.jpg



https://3.bp.blogspot.com/-DIQY6sAcXjk/VUXDhchM7nI/AAAAAAAABME/bH4FV6UL9Eo/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B003.jpg


https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-tdpjT_D7vJU/VUXEBlLW1uI/AAAAAAAABMM/69z09vPEZ7w/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B004.jpg


https://1.bp.blogspot.com/--6nT4fagTes/VUXERhM9YxI/AAAAAAAABMU/4TOv_VX-r9o/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B005.jpg



https://4.bp.blogspot.com/-GkZ-zynWUaE/VUXEg7zjK7I/AAAAAAAABMc/z_ijx5yf0vc/s1600/Fear%2Bof%2BCrime%2BOlder%2BPeople%2BPerceptions%2Bof%2BSafety%2B006.jpg



Fear of Crime Ch. 4

A Safe and Secure Environment for Older Australians

Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series No. 51 2003


Thursday, 5 July 2018

Community Safety Attempted Murder Female Aggression Public Sphere Violence Random Attack Brutal Stabbing of Female La Trobe University, Melbourne knife attacker Sarah Jean Cheney is ‘Australia’s most dangerous inmate’ Herald Sun July 25, 2015 Female Violence Against Females Female Aggression, Physical or Emotional is a Female Community Safety Issue Pete Dowe



Female Aggression, Physical or Emotional is a Female Community Safety Issue


Pete Dowe


La Trobe University knife attacker Sarah Jean Cheney is ‘Australia’s most dangerous inmate’

July 25, 2015 9:00pm






Cheney is held in high security at the Dame Phyllis Frost Centre.
THE woman who attempted to murder a Melbourne student with a knife is “totally out of control” behind bars and a “serious threat” to staff and prisoners.
Sarah Jean Cheney, 31, who was jailed for eight years for the brutal stabbing of La Trobe University student Jemma Clancy, is now known throughout the prison system as “Australia’s most dangerous female inmate”, the Sunday Herald Sun has learned.
A source told how the heavily built prisoner, who is being held in isolation at Dame Phyllis Frost Centre in Deer Park, is considered so dangerous, staff are at “constant risk” from being attacked.
“She is literally now known in the system as the most dangerous female prisoner in the country,” the source said, “She just wants to do harm to others, she’s out of control.
“She causes endless trouble by shouting, hitting and destroying items in her room.
“It’s so difficult for officers to deal with. Guards can’t keep everything from her so it’s a total nightmare for them.”
DAME PHYLLIS FROST: BEHIND THE BARS OF TOP WOMEN’S JAIL
Cheney is known to have assaulted at least three nurses and five prison guards since she was jailed for the 2007 attack on the student in the toilets in the university library toilets.
Cheney, who told police after the knife attack she had fantasised on going on a killing rampage, had laid in wait in the toilets before stabbing the woman she had never met twice in the back, lacerating her spleen and puncturing her lung.
She was sentenced to eight years in 2009 with a non-parole period of four and a half years for the attempted murder.
However she was then sentenced to six years in jail in 2013 for causing serious injury to a prison nurse and assaulting two prison officers in three separate incidents.
The court heard she assaulted the nurse because she had a “sudden urge to grab someone.”
She choked, punched and kicked her regular nurse, banged her head against the wall and then got on top of her and put her hand on her throat.
“I just wanted to hurt her,” Cheney told police afterwards, “It’s just that she was in the wrong place at the wrong time.”
Ten days after the vicious attack Cheney assaulted an experienced prison officer, grabbing her by the hair and smashing her head into the floor while being escorted from her cell.
Just over two weeks later, the prisoner then attacked a male guard, while handcuffed, hitting him in the face.
“Both the nurse and the guard never came back to work again,” a source said.
As a result of her diagnosed schizoid personality disorder, Cheney has now been in lock down in isolation 22 hours a day for several years. Her ongoing difficult conduct means the restrictions on her incarceration cannot be loosened.
For two hours each week the gym is closed just for her own use so that other prisoners are not in danger.
“Sarah just usually does some rowing. She can’t mix with other prisoners at all.
“She’s quite open about the fact she just wants to kill someone,
“The problem is she should probably be in a secure mental institution but it’s not safe for the staff,” the source told the Herald Sun.
“They are at serious risk from attack so she has to be kept in isolation.”
lucie.morrismarr@news.com.au


http://m.heraldsun.com.au/news/law-order/la-trobe-university-knife-attacker-sarah-jean-cheney-is-australias-most-dangerous-inmate/story-fni0ffnk-1227427440818?login=1

Sunday, 24 June 2018

Community Safety Murder Public Sphere Violence Random Attack ''Melbourne streets are not safe for women'' Herald Sun June 14, 2018



I'll probably be howled down as this is a shocking tragedy no doubt though I don't agree with the headline and the headline encourages fear of crime. Sexual assaults by strangers are rare. The three Melbourne women cited were young and were raped and murdered by a male stranger in public in Melbourne over a five year period. Three young Melburnian women in a city of 4 million in five years is three too many and also rare. It ought to have been rarer as Adrian Bayley shouldn't have gotten parole and Sean Price shouldn't have gotten bail. You cannot justify fear of crime as an inner city or Melbourne fear. Hypervigilance is now in rural Victoria ''The streets of (name a Victorian Rural Town) are not safe for women?'' What good does panic do? Susie you have just decreed that Melbourne isn’t safe for women and ok your article is for a tabloid newspaper

Ps Susie, I commend you on your writings on the problem of vigilantes targeting Fathers and Grandfathers with their kids/ grandkids as fear of crime stranger danger. Why then crank up the panic here? You don’t think vigilantes will target males? You don’t think they already do?

Pete Dowe

Smartphones are used as weapons.to take pre-emptive strikes on men with social contagion cyberbullying. Does he not also have the right to walk anywhere anytime?


#cyberbullying #bigsister #smartphone #surveillance #femaleaggression #rumourspread #socialaggresion





Susie O’Brien: Melbourne streets are not safe for women

THE death of Eurydice Dixon is a reminder that we live in a city divided.
Melbourne isn’t a safe place after dark for women. Our city’s streets contain additional threats for women than men.
Ms Dixon was young, fit and savvy.













Eurydice Dixon was a comedian.

She’d finished work at 10.30pm in a crowded public place in the heart of the city. She was on her way home, presumably triumphant about her successful performance at the Highlander Bar.
She should have been safe. And yet some time around 11pm she was attacked, raped and killed.
She never made it home.
Her body was found three hours later, abandoned on a dark soccer pitch in the middle of a popular park.













Jaymes Todd is accused of Ms Dixon’s murder.

It’s a chilling reminder of women’s vulnerability in public places after dark. It’s two years after Masa Vukotic was stabbed in Doncasterin a random evening attack and six years after the death of Jill Meagher on the streets of Brunswick.
Ms Dixon was 22; her life was just beginning. She should not be dead.
What she went through in her final moments doesn’t bear thinking about.
At this stage it appears to have been a crime of opportunity; the man arrested for her rape and murder isn’t thought to be known to her personally.
It could have been any of the thousands of bright young women making their way around the city at night.
Alarmingly, Ms Dixon’s death comes as sexual crimes continue to rise. The latest Victorian crime statistics show sexual offences up 13.4 per cent, from 7493 to 8495. In some areas the rise is even greater: in Geelong it’s up an astonishing 41.6 per cent.
Some — but not all — of this increase is down to a new sexual offences code. So what’s going on?
According to the Centre for Sexual Assault, 17 per cent of women and four per cent of men experience sexual assault over the age of 15.
ABS figures show 93 per cent of offenders are male and that only 17 per cent of sexual assaults result in a conviction. Police data states girls between the ages of 10 and 14 are the greatest proportion of victims, and young women aged between 15 and 24 are the second largest category.
The tragical, brutal and untimely end to Ms Dixon’s life shows more must be done to keep our streets safe, not only for women but all Victorians.










































  • https://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/opinion/susie-obrien/susie-obrien-melbourne-streets-are-not-safe-for-women/news-story/1d2b97a3cb9f445a6f3d888ae109ba76