"...has been to date only minimal attention given to the definition and understanding
of covert bullying (aka indirect or relational bullying)."
"...school harassment policies have focused primarily on curtailing physical and direct aggression,
and have placed less emphasis on establishing school-wide policies
to address indirect (or covert or relational) bullying
(e.g. rumour spreading, isolation and social seclusion which is more hidden)."
"...had the fewest children reporting being bullied in the playground,
implying that a shift had taken place towards the use of more covert bullying
and less noticeable bullying behaviour,
as a result of better playground supervision."
"...reactions to physical bullying, verbal bullying, and
Yoon and Kerber  found significant differences in teacher reactions across all three bullying types,
with teachers showing significantly less empathy towards, and involvement in, dealing with relational aggression (covert or indirect bullying).
"Studies are increasingly indicating that students are less likely to report incidences of covert bullying
than overt physical or verbal aggressive behaviour [84; 116; 118], because they felt they could not
suggesting that instead teachers tended to ignore or dismiss
the (covert bullying) behaviour [83; 112; 119]."
Borkqvist  used the term the ‘effect-to-danger ratio’
to suggest that in inflicting harm on another person or group of people,
individuals look for forms of bullying that will have the greatest effect
while minimising their risk of being caught or placed in danger."
had the fewest children reporting being bullied in the playground, implying that a shift had taken place
Studies are increasingly indicating that students are less likely to report incidences of covert